**TABLE OF CONTENTS**

**PART I. INTRODUCTION**

CHAPTER 1. TERMINOLOGY

Population, Sample, and Element

Descriptive vs. Inferential Statistics

Parameter vs. Statistic

Sampling Error vs. Selection Bias

Imprecision vs. Bias (Inaccuracy)

Validity vs. Reliability

Independent vs. Dependent Variables

Normal (Gaussian), Skewed and Kurtotic curves

Multiplication and Addition Rules of Probability

Statistical Significance vs. Clinical Significance

Statistical Abnormality vs. Clinical Abnormality

CHAPTER 2. MEAN, MEDIAN, AND MODE

Mean

Median

Mode

What’s Wrong Here? *#!!

CHAPTER 3. RANGE, VARIATION, AND STANDARD DEVIATION

Range

Variance

Standard Deviation

Coefficient of Variation

CHAPTER 4. KINDS OF DATA

Nominal Data

Ordinal Data

Interval Data

Ratio Data

**PART II. RESEARCH DESIGN**

CHAPTER 5. KINDS OF STUDIES

Randomized Control Studies

Matching Studies

Stratified Randomization Studies

Blind Studies

Prospective (Cohort; Longitudinal) Studies

Retrospective (Case-control) Studies

Cross-sectional (Prevalence) Studies

Experimental vs. Observational Studies

Case Series and Case Reports

Meta-analysis

Crossover, Between-subjects, and Within-subjects Studies

Therapeutic Trials

CHAPTER 6. GRAPHING

Bar Graphs (Bar Charts)

Tables

Histograms

Line Graphs

Cumulative Frequency Curves

Box-and-Whiskers Plots

Stem-and-Leaf Plots

Scattergrams

Survival Curves

CHAPTER 7. HYPOTHESIS TESTING

The Null and Alternative Hypotheses

Rejecting the Null Hypothesis

**PART III. STATISTICAL TESTS**

Parametric vs. Nonparametric Tests

CHAPTER 8. DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS

The Z-score

CHAPTER 9. INFERENTIAL STATISTICS

Confidence Intervals vs. Hypothesis Testing and P-values

CHAPTER 10. STANDARD ERROR OF THE MEAN

The Central Limit Theorem

Standard Error of the Mean (SEM)

CHAPTER 11. THE T-TEST

The Meaning of the T-Test

Comparing Two Samples

CHAPTER 12. ONE-TAILED VS. TWO-TAILED STUDIES

CHAPTER 13. P-ING (PEE-ING) ALL OVER THE PLACE

CHAPTER 14. TYPE I AND TYPE II ERRORS AND POWER

Type I and Type II Errors

Power

Effect Size

Bayesian Thinking

Calculation of Sample Size

CHAPTER 15. ANOVA (ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE)

ANOVA and F-ratio

MANOVA and ANCOVA

CHAPTER 16. CORRELATION AND REGRESSION

Correlation Techniques

Correlation Coefficient

Coefficient of Determination

Correlation Does Not Mean Causation

Criteria of Causality

Regression

Kinds of Regression Analysis

Regression to the Mean

CHAPTER 17. NONPARAMETRIC TESTS

Chi Square Goodness-of-Fit Test

Nonparametric Tests That Use Ranking

Nonparametric Tests That Do Not Use Ranking

CHAPTER 18. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL TESTS

Incidence vs. Prevalence

Mortality, Morbidity, and Case Fatality

Absolute Risk vs. Relative Risk (RR)

Odds and Odds Ratio (Relative Odds)

Absolute Risk Reduction (Attributable Risk) vs. Relative Risk Reduction

Number Needed to Treat (NNT)

Number Needed to Harm (NNH)

Sensitivity vs. Specificity

Positive and Negative Predictive Values

**PART IV. ARE THE RESEARCH CONCLUSIONS CORRECT?**

CHAPTER 19. WHAT’S WRONG HERE? *#!!

Who Says So?

How Does the Researcher Know?

What’s Missing?

Did Someone Change the Subject?

Does It Make Sense?

Appendix A. The Z table

Appendix B. The T table

Appendix C. The Chi-square Table

References

INDEX

5out of 5tadh – Perfect for First Year Clinical Pharmacy Residents-Physician Interns/Residents!–Perfect for First Year Pharmacy Residents! Found this book Early 2014; so fun to read and refresh your memory. Recommended it use it for a PGY1 Pharmacy Residency Program in a large private hospital. We bought one for each resident and had interactive weekly sessions for about 6 weeks to discuss and provide additional practical examples. This book along with an interactive process was by far a more effective method than going through slides to bring some of the concepts home. Just enough to satisfy the needs of a first year clinical residency program for either pharmacists or physicians and while being fun to read. So happy that a section on Epidemiology along with Chapter 5 on Study Designs are provided since these type studies more closely mimic any clinical research project a one year pharmacy resident can complete. Obviously, more information would be needed for extensive research focus.

5out of 5Joel Ledbetter – Complex made simple–The title says it all. It really helped me with by board exam. I highly recommend this book for anyone in the medical field

5out of 5Mededucator – Finally, clinical biostatistics made simple–It took until I retired from being a medical educator to finally find a text that, indeed, makes clinical biostatistics simple for the medical provider, medical student, physician resident, health sciences student, and medical educator. If I were still in the medical center, the lab or the classroom, this wonderfully short and to-the-point text would be in my briefcase for immediate reference. It’s become essential for medical professionals to possess biostatistical knowledege and skills that will enable them to evaluate current research and reported “exciting new findings.” The ability to adequately evaluate the merits of a study’s design and its conclusions is as much a part of being a fine physician as is any other provider skill. We have long been in need of a handbook that makes clinical biostatistics ridiculously simple; Drs Weaver and Goldberg have now published such a text.

5out of 5RV Chand – Clinical biostatistics quick guide–This is a broad, concise, and laconic overview of clinical biostats. The topics covered in the 95 pages include probability, research design, statistical testing, and regression analysis. In addition, the reader is supported with z-tables, t-tables, and common abbreviations.

Ms Weaver includes a clever section on critical assessment of clinical trial data.

Adeptly written and highly recommended as a quick guide.

5out of 5mo – Awesome, awesome–I am SO, SO glad I ordered this book. Everything is SO clearly explained, straight & to the point. I finally get the critical value of the normal curve, thw fundamentals of p values & confidence intervals. Better explanation of attributable risk & risk number needed to treat will be great. Still, AWESOME book.

5out of 5Hazel – Really Ridiculously Simple–This book is great. I just started a literature review course, and I was feeling a little overwhelmed by all the biostatistical tests that were being done in all the trials that we were reviewing. I had taken a biostats course, but I barely understood was going on during that time as well. This book gave a simple explanation for most of the tests that were being discussed in the studies and helped me to better understand why the test was being done and what each test was used for.

I recommend this book for someone who needs a really simplified explanation of biostats. As the title of the book implies, the author really makes biostats seem ridiculously simple.

5out of 5kbev – SAVED MY GRADE–This book is wonderful. Without it I would not have passed biostatistics I. I don’t even read my course textbook, I relied completely on this book and scored a “B” on my final. Several of my classmates also purchased this book and feel the same way as I do. Our course director is actually going to incorporate this book into the course next year. It is a short read, roughly 90 pages. The nice thing about it is you can look up the topic in the index and skip around based upon what concept you are trying to understand. The authors do a phenomenal job of breaking down concepts with minimal math. I appreciate this as incorporating math makes it way more confusing. I want to understand the fundamental concepts first.

5out of 5Andrea C. – Epidemiology Resource–Straight to the point with explanation of epidemiology formulas. However, I did not only depend on this book for my course. This book was more like a resource & I recommend it.

5out of 5Southernsnow – Must have book for newbies or a great reference.–This book not only saved my grades but helped me to understand Biostatistics. I recommended it to my entire class. I appreciate the authors to the point style and easy to comprehend format without dumbing down the content.

5out of 5CG – Easy to Read and Understand–Important concepts are explained in easy to understand language. If you find statistics daunting and need basic explanations about the concepts, buy this book.

5out of 5Amanda – concise great book–Got this to supplement my Biostatistics class and I am so glad that I did. It explains simply with examples throughout, allowing the ‘penny to drop’ where before you were stuck.

5out of 5Elizabeth Lee – Saved me a whole course–I am in a graduate program that deals with bioimaging and relevant statistical procedures. As an undergrad, I got straight easy “A’s” in a high level stat class (for sociology, using SPSS). However, this new course presented formulas and symbols that I thought I already knew, and and I lost sight of the fundamental and simple principles underlying all stats

This got me back on track and grounded in the basics in a day or two. *To note again: this book’s scope is not going to teach intricate formulas, etc.

Thank you!

5out of 5A_Spence – Best book!–Great book, not too complex and keeps the concepts easy!